Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11790/1530
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dc.contributor.authorPiringer, Gerhardde_at
dc.contributor.authorSteinberg, Laura J.de_at
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-08T12:23:24Z-
dc.date.available2021-04-08T12:23:24Z-
dc.date.issued2006-
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Industrial Ecology, 10(1‐2), 149-167de_at
dc.identifier.issn1088-1980-
dc.identifier.issn1530-9290-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11790/1530-
dc.description.abstractEnergy budgets for agricultural production can be used as building blocks for life‐cycle assessments that include agricultural products, and can also serve as a first step toward identifying crop production processes that benefit most from increased efficiency. A general trend toward increased energy efficiency in U.S. agriculture has been reported. For wheat cultivation, in particular, this study updates cradle‐to‐gate process analyses produced in the seventies and eighties. Input quantities were obtained from official U.S. statistics and other sources and multiplied by calculated or recently published energy coefficients. The total energy input into the production of a kilogram of average U.S. wheat grain is estimated to range from 3.1 to 4.9 MJ/kg, with a best estimate at 3.9 MJ/kg. The dominant contribution is energy embodied in nitrogen fertilizer at 47% of the total energy input, followed by diesel fuel (25%), and smaller contributions such as energy embodied in seed grain, gasoline, electricity, and phosphorus fertilizer. This distribution is reflected in the energy carrier mix, with natural gas dominating (57%), followed by diesel fuel (30%). High variability in energy coefficients masks potential gains in total energy efficiency as compared to earlier, similar U.S. studies. Estimates from an input‐output model for several input processes agree well with process analysis results, but the model's application can be limited by aggregation issues: Total energy inputs for generic food grain production were lower than wheat fertilizer inputs alone, possibly due to aggregation of diverse products into the food grain sector.de_at
dc.language.isoende_at
dc.publisherWileyde_at
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Industrial Ecologyde_at
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/closedAccess-
dc.subjectagriculturede_at
dc.subjectcarrier mixde_at
dc.subjectenergy balancede_at
dc.subjectgrainde_at
dc.subjectinput‐output modelde_at
dc.subjectprocess analysisde_at
dc.titleReevaluation of energy use in wheat production in the United Statesde_at
dc.typeWissenschaftlicher Artikelde_at
dc.identifier.doi10.1162/108819806775545420-
dc.identifier.scopus2-s2.0-33750626413-
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-33750626413&partnerID=MN8TOARS-
item.grantfulltextnone-
item.languageiso639-1en-
item.fulltextNo Fulltext-
item.openairetypeWissenschaftlicher Artikel-
item.openairecristypehttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_18cf-
item.cerifentitytypePublications-
crisitem.author.deptEnergie-Umweltmanagement-
crisitem.author.orcid0000-0002-7796-5172-
crisitem.author.parentorgFH Burgenland-
Appears in Collections:Energie-Umweltmanagement
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