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Title: Reliability of Cu wire bonds in microelectronic packages
Authors: Czerny, Bernhard 
Mazloum-Nejadari, Ali 
Khatibi, Golta 
Lederer, Martin 
Nicolis, Johann 
Weiss, Laurens 
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Microelectronics Reliability. 74(2017), 147-154
Journal: Microelectronics Reliability 
Abstract: In this study the thermo-mechanical response of 25 μm Cu wire bonds in an LQFP-EPad (Low Profile Quad Flat Exposed Pad) package was investigated by numerical and experimental means. The aim was to develop a meth odology for fast evaluation of the packages, with focus on wire bond fatigue, by combining finite element analysis (FEA) and mechanical fatigue testing. The investigations included the following steps: (i) simulation of the warp age induced displacements in the encapsulated LQFP-176-Epad package due to temperature changes, (ii) repro ducing the thermally induced stresses in the wire bond loops in an unmolded (non-encapsulated) LQFP package using an accelerated multiaxial mechanical fatigue testing set-up under the displacement amplitudes deter mined in case (i) and determination of the loading cycles to failure (Nf), (iii) FEA of the experiments performed in (ii) based on the boundary conditions determined in (i) to calculate the states of stress and strain in the wire bonds subjected to multiaxial mechanical cyclic loading. Our investigations confirm that thermal and mechanical cyclic loading results in occurrence of high plastic strains at the heat affected zone (HAZ) above the nail-head, which may lead to fatigue failure of the wire bonds in the packages. The lifetime of wire bonds show a propor tional relation between the location and angle of the wire bond to the direction of loading. The calculated accu mulated plastic strain in the HAZ was correlated to the experimentally determined Nf values based on the volume weighted averaging (VWA) approached and presented in a lifetime diagram (Δd-Nf) for reliability assessment of Cu wire bonds. The described accelerated test method could be used as a rapid qualification test for the deter mination of the lifetimes of wire bonds at different positions on the chip as well as for related improvements of package design.
ISBN: 00262714
DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2017.04.014
Appears in Collections:Energie-Umweltmanagement

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