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- PublicationBiogenic carbon-enriched and pollutant depleted SRF from commercial and pretreated heterogeneous waste generated by NIR sensor-based sortingMechanical processing using predominantly particle size and density as separation criteria is currently applied in the production of solid-recovered fuel or refuse-derived fuel. It does not sufficiently allow for the optimization of the quality of heterogeneous solid waste for subsequent energy recovery. Material-specific processing, in contrast, allows the separation criterion to be linked to specific chemical constituents. Therefore, the technical applicability of material-specific sorting of heterogeneous waste, in order to optimize its routing options, was evaluated. Two sorting steps were tested on a pilot and a large scale. Near infrared multiplexed sensor-based sorting devices were used (1) to reduce the chlorine (Cl) respectively pollutant content, in order to broaden the utilization options of SRF in industrial co-incineration, and (2) to increase the biogenic carbon (Cbio) content, which is highly relevant in the light of the EU emission trading scheme on CO2. It was found that the technology is generally applicable for the heterogeneous waste fractions looked at, if the sensor systems are appropriately adjusted for the sorting task. The first sorting step allowed for the removal of up to 40% of the Cl freight by separating only 3 to 5% of the material mass. Very low Cl concentrations were achieved in the output stream to be used as solid-recovered fuel stream and additionally, the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration was decreased. A two- to four-fold enriched Cbio content was achieved by the second sorting step. Due to lower yields in the large-scale test further challenges need to be addressed.
54Scopus© Citations 14
- PublicationClimate impact analysis of waste treatment scenarios-thermal treatment of commercial and pretreated waste versus landfilling in AustriaA major challenge for modern waste management lies in a smart integration of waste-to-energy installations in local energy systems in such a way that the energy efficiency of the waste-to-energy plant is optimized and that the energy contained in the waste is, therefore, optimally utilized. The extent of integration of thermal waste treatment processes into regular energy supply systems plays a major role with regard to climate control. In this research, the specific waste management situation looked at scenarios aiming at maximizing the energy recovery from waste (i.e. actual scenario and waste-to-energy process with 75% energy efficiency [22.5% electricity, 52.5% heat]) yield greenhouse gas emission savings due to the fact that more greenhouse gas emissions are avoided in the energy sector than caused by the various waste treatment processes. Comparing dedicated waste-to-energy-systems based on the combined heat and power (CHP) process with concepts based on sole electricity production, the energy efficiency proves to be crucial with regard to climate control. This underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sites for waste-to-energy-plants. This research was looking at the effect with regard to the climate impact of various waste management scenarios that could be applied alternatively by a private waste management company in Austria. The research is, therefore, based on a specific set of data for the waste streams looked at (waste characteristics, logistics needed, etc.). Furthermore, the investigated scenarios have been defined based on the actual available alternatives with regard to the usage of treatment plants for this specific company. The standard scenarios for identifying climate impact implications due to energy recovery from waste are based on the respective marginal energy data for the power and heat generation facilities/industrial processes in Austria.
132Scopus© Citations 18