Research Outputs

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 20
  • Publication
    Function-as-a-Service Benchmarking Framework
    Cloud Service Providers deliver their products in form of ”as-a-Service”, which are typically categorized by the level of abstraction. This approach hides the implementation details and shows only functionality to the user. However, the problem is that it is hard to measure the performance of Cloud services, because they behave like black boxes. Especially with Function-as-a-Service it is even more difficult because it completely hides server and infrastructure management from users by design. Cloud Service Prodivers usually restrict the maximum size of code, memory and runtime of Cloud Functions. Nevertheless, users need clarification if more ressources are needed to deliver services in high quality. In this regard, we present the architectural design of a new Function-as-a-Service benchmarking tool, which allows users to evaluate the performance of Cloud Functions. Furthermore, the capabilities of the framework are tested on an isolated platform with a specific workload. The results show that users are able to get insights into Function-as-a-Service environments. This, in turn, allows users to identify factors which may slow down or speed up the performance of Cloud Functions.
      509Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
      269  420
  • Publication
    A Lightweight Authentication Mechanism for M2M Communications in Industrial IoT Environment
    (2019)
    Esfahani, A. 
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    Mantas, G. 
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    Matischek, R. 
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    Saghezchi, F. 
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    ; ; ;
    Schmittner, Ch. 
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    Bastos, J. 
    In the emerging industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) era, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication technology is considered as a key underlying technology for building IIoT environments, where devices (e.g., sensors, actuators, and gateways) are enabled to exchange information with each other in an autonomous way without human intervention. However, most of the existing M2M protocols that can be also used in the IIoT domain provide security mechanisms based on asymmetric cryptography resulting in high computational cost. As a consequence, the resource-constrained IoT devices are not able to support them appropriately and thus, many security issues arise for the IIoT environment. Therefore, lightweight security mechanisms are required for M2M communications in IIoT in order to reach its full potential. As a step toward this direction, in this paper, we propose a lightweight authentication mechanism, based only on hash and XOR operations, for M2M communications in IIoT environment. The proposed mechanism is characterized by low computational cost, communication, and storage overhead, while achieving mutual authentication, session key agreement, device's identity confidentiality, and resistance against the following attacks: replay attack, man-in-the-middle attack, impersonation attack, and modification attack.
      561  153Scopus© Citations 163
  • Publication
    Towards Resilience Metrics for Future Cloud Applications
    (2016)
    Novak, Marko 
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    Shirazi, Syed Noorulhassan 
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    Hudic, Aleksandar 
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    Hecht, Thomas 
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    Hutchison, David 
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    An analysis of new technologies can yield insight into the way these technologies will be used. Inevitably, new technologies and their uses are likely to result in new security issues regarding threats, vulnerabilities and attack vectors. In this paper, we investigate and analyse technological and security trends and their potential to become future threats by systematically examining industry reports on existing technologies. Using a cloud computing use case we identify potential resilience metrics that can shed light on the security properties of the system.
      144Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Automated and Secure Onboarding for System of Systems
    (IEEE, 2021-08-03) ; ; ; ;
    Péceli, Bálint 
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    Singler, Gábor 
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    Kovács, Kristóf 
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    ;
    Delsing, Jerker 
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly changing the number of connected devices and the way they interact with each other. This increases the need for an automated and secure onboarding procedure for IoT devices, systems and services. Device manufacturers are entering the market with internet connected devices, ranging from small sensors to production devices, which are subject of security threats specific to IoT. The onboarding procedure is required to introduce a new device in a System of Systems (SoS) without compromising the already onboarded devices and the underlying infrastructure. Onboarding is the process of providing access to the network and registering the components for the first time in an IoT/SoS framework, thus creating a chain of trust from the hardware device to its hosted software systems and their provided services. The large number and diversity of device hardware, software systems and running services raises the challenge to establish a generic onboarding procedure. In this paper, we present an automated and secure onboarding procedure for SoS. We have implemented the onboarding procedure in the Eclipse Arrowhead framework. However, it can be easily adapted for other IoT/SoS frameworks that are based on Service-oriented Architecture (SoA) principles. The automated onboarding procedure ensures a secure and trusted communication between the new IoT devices and the Eclipse Arrowhead framework. We show its application in a smart charging use case and perform a security assessment.
      154Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
      527  267
  • Publication
    Towards a secure and self-adapting smart indoor farming framework
    (Springer, 2019-10-21) ; ; ;
    Schmittner, Christoph 
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    Christl, Korbinian 
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    Knapitsch, Johannes 
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    Parapatits, Martin 
    Facing the increase in world population and the stagnation in available arable land there is a high demand for optimizing the food production. Considering the world-wide and ongoing reduction of the agricultural labor force novel approaches for food production are required. Vertical farming may be such a solution where plants are being produced indoors in racks, cared by robotic appliances which will be operated by specialized software. Given the multitude of parameters which determine the ideal condition, a lot of data needs to be acquired. As this data is used to adapt the entire Cyber-Physical System to a changing environment the data has to be secure and adaptations have to consider safety aspects as well. Such systems must hence be secure, safe, scalable and self-adaptable to a high degree. We present an important element for such solutions, a cloud, IoT and robotic based smart farming framework.
      587  202Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Analysing Design Approaches for the Power Consumption in Cyber-Physical Systems
    (IEEE, 2021-06-30) ; ; ;
    Mauthe, Andreas 
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    Gouglidis, Antonios 
    The importance of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet of Things (IoT) applications is constantly increasing, especially in the context of Industry 4.0. Architectural decisions are crucial not just for performance, security and resilience reasons but also regarding costs and resource usage. In this paper we analyse two of the fundamental approaches to design control loops (i.e. time-driven and event-driven), show how they can be realised and evaluate their power requirements. Through this the design criteria can be extended also considering the optimization of energy related aspects.
      154
  • Publication
    Risk Management and Standard Compliance for Cyber-Physical Systems of Systems
    (Scientific Association for Infocommunications (HTE), 2021) ;
    Chlup, Sebastian 
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    Shaaban, Abdelkader Magdy 
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    Schmittner, Christoph 
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    Pinzenöhler, Andreas 
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    The Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud technologies are increasingly implemented in the form of Cyber-Physical Systems of Systems (CPSoS) for the railway sector. In order to satisfy the security requirements of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), domainspecific risk identification assessment procedures have been developed. Threat modelling is one of the most commonly used methods for threat identification for the security analysis of CPSoS and is capable of targeting various domains. This paper reports our experience of using a risk management framework identify the most critical security vulnerabilities in CPSoS in the domain and shows the broader impact this work can have on the domain of safety and security management. Moreover, we emphasize the application of common analytical methods for cyber-security based on international industry standards to identify the most vulnerable assets. These will be applied to a meta-model for automated railway systems in the concept phase to support the development and deployment of these systems. Furthermore, it is the first step to create a secure and standard complaint system by design.
      104  86Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Impact of Critical Infrastructure Requirements on Service Migration Guidelines to the Cloud
    (IEEE, 2015)
    Wagner, Christian 
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    Hudic, Aleksandar 
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    ; ;
    Pallas, Frank 
    A high level of information security in critical infrastructure IT systems and services has to be preserved when migrating their IT services to the cloud. Often various legislative and security constraints have to be met in line with best practice guidelines and international standards to perform the migration. To support the critical infrastructure providers in migrating their services to the cloud we are developing a process based migration guideline for critical infrastructure providers focusing on information security. First of all we investigate, via questionnaires, how the importance of individual security topics covered in such guidelines differentiates between industry stakeholders and critical infrastructure providers. This supports the selection of relevant security topics and the considered guidelines and standards, which we survey in search for common relevant security topics. Subsequently we present the analysis of the above-mentioned security requirements and how they affect a here developed taxonomy for a process-based security guideline. Furthermore we present potential service migration use cases and how our methodology would affect the migration of secure critical infrastructure services.
      149Scopus© Citations 4